Gene transformation and CRISPR/Cas9:
This takes advantage of the fact that some dinoflagellates (especially heterotrophic and mixotrophic species) can take up bacteria.
Finding the right medium (low-salt) and suitable voltage is critical for success
Using Lonza’s 4D Nucleofector
Working with CRISPR/Cas9 RNPs
This requires that the species can grow on a solid (agar) medium.