Our research on phytoplankton is fairly diverse in nature but currently focuses on dinoflagellates, a phylum closely related to the malaria parasite, apicomplexans, and ciliates. Dinoflagellates are important primary producers, but there are also many species that are heterotrophic or mixotrophic. Symbiodinium (zooxanthellae) is essential to the growth of reef-building corals. Dinoflagellates are major contributors of red tides (also known as harmful algal blooms), and some of them produce toxins. We are interested in learning how these organisms came to be what they are and do what they do, from a genomic perspective. Their genome is enormous, and their gene expression pattern and regulation are unusual compared to other eukaryotes. We study genome makeup, evolution, transcriptome, mRNA editing, and molecular markers (for phylogeny, population dynamics, and in situ cell division rate).